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Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center

Rock Art

Rock art images that are carved or painted onto rock surfaces, are visual symbols that ancient peoples used to convey meaning in the absence of a written language.  Even though we often do not understand the exact meaning the images had for the people who made them, they are still beautiful connections to those who inhabited the earth before us.  Rock art stimulates our imaginations to ponder what life was like for the people who lived where we now live.  It encourages us to consider how their lives were different and in some ways similar to our own. This page contains information about nine rock art sites in southwestern Wisconsin.  Use this web site to see otherwise inaccessible examples of the some of the area’s rock art.

Gullickson

Gullickson’s Glen is a small overhanging rock shelter located in the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin.  Petroglyphs at the site occur at the center and on either edge of the shelter.  The central panel contains the most petroglyphs but these are difficult to see due to a growth of moss and lichen on the petroglyphs.  Findings suggest that Native Americans were occupying the rockshelter as long as 2000 years ago, although the petroglyphs probably do not date farther back than 800 years ago.  Excavations at the site have uncovered remnants of Middle Woodland and Oneota occupancy.  Quartzite implements possibly used for making petroglyphs were found in the Oneota level.  Excavations uncovered numerous potsherds, quartzite knives, rubbing stones, a fragment of a pottery pipe and charcoal.  Bones from deer, elk, fish, turkey, bear, and mountain lion were also recovered.

Petroglyphs at Gullickson’s Glen have been interpreted as: a bison nursing her calf, deer, elk, eagles, fish, geese, swans, thunderbirds, and human figures.

Outside view of Gullickson's Glen

Outside view of Gullickson’s Glen

Looking out of Gullickson's Glen

Looking out of Gullickson’s Glen

 

1958 excavations at Gullickson's Glenn

1958 excavations at Gullickson’s Glen

Pottery recovered at Gullickson's Glen

Pottery recovered at Gullickson’s Glen

 

Central panel

Central panel

Line drawing of central panel
The central panel contains the most petroglyphs but these are difficult to see due to a growth of moss and lichen on the petroglyphs.  However, petroglyphs on either side of the central panel show less damage from mosses and lichen.  Link to larger image of line drawing.

 

Petroglyphs of four geese

Petroglyphs of four geese

Line drawing of petroglyphs of four geese

Line drawing of petroglyphs of four geese

Petroglyphs of four geese

Petroglyphs of four geese

The left and right pictures are of the same petroglyphs taken at different times. Over time, mosses and lichens have covered them. The four geese from the left picture are now more difficult to see. Since the right photograph was taken, this section of the wall has fallen and these petroglyphs have since been destroyed.

 

Deer head

Deer head

Deer head line drawing

Deer head line drawing

 

 

Wolf

Wolf

Wolf line drawing

Wolf line drawing

 

 

Bison nursing her calf

Bison nursing her calf

Bison nursing her calf line drawing

Bison nursing her calf line drawing

 

 

Deer or elk

Deer or elk

Deer or elk line drawing

Deer or elk line drawing

 

 

Deer or elk

Deer or elk

Deer or elk line drawing

Deer or elk line drawing

 

Fish

Fish

Fish line drawing

Fish line drawing

 

 

Human figure

Human figure

Human figures line drawing

Human figures line drawing

 

 

Hanson

Petroglyphs are carved into a sandstone outcrop near the top of a large ridge overlooking the Kickapoo River Valley.  Three complete bird figures and the wing of a fourth figure are visible.  Because the sandstone is soft and some areas are badly eroded, there may have been more than the four figures that are currently visible.  If the erosion continues at its present rate another figure will be lost in the near future.  A possible interpretation of the petroglyphs is that they may be humans in disguise or possible spirit beings.

View of Hanson petroglyphs

View of Hanson petroglyphs

Line drawing of bird petroglyphs

Line drawing of bird petroglyphs

 

 

Bird petroglyphs

Bird petroglyphs

Bird petroglyphs

Bird petroglyphs

 

 

Indian Cave

Indian cave is a narrow, low, natural fissure cave/shelter containing prehistoric petroglyphs.  Regional comparisons suggest that prehistoric activity in the cave probably dates to the late prehistoric period, ca. 250 B.C. to 1500 A.D., although no diagnostic artifacts have been found in the vicinity.  A panel of petroglyphs and two petroglyphs opposite the panel are present in the cave.

The panel consists of at least nine petroglyphs with a variety of figures represented.  Possibly representing a story panel, it shows (from left to right): two seated human figures, one of which is in profile, with an abstract bird-like figure and pipe figure perched about the shoulder of the first human; an abstract group of carvings (possible mammals); a standing human figure wearing headgear with arms outstretched; a large bow strung with arrows pointed toward a large mammal figure with a hand representation to the left of its head; a large hand representation at the rear of the animal; and finally a long curved line underscoring the complete panel.

Archaeologist in Indian Cave

Archaeologist in Indian Cave

Petroglyph panel line drawing

Petroglyph panel line drawing

 

Petroglyph panel

Petroglyph panel

Petroglyph panel

Petroglyph panel

 

Larson

Larson Cave is a shallow naturally-formed cave/shelter containing prehistoric petroglyphs and prehistoric occupation debris.  Regional comparisons suggest that prehistoric activity in the shelter probably dates to the late prehistoric period, ca. 250 B.C. to 1500 A.D., although no diagnostic artifacts have been recovered from the site to date.  A panel of figures is visible at the entrance to the cave and additional markings are also located within the cave.

The panel consists of two rows of mostly human stick-like figures, some joined together at the arms and some standing alone.  The figures appear to have gender designations and vary in size with “males” slightly taller than “females”.  Three small “male” figures appear in the top row.  One figure appears to be carrying something in his hand: another appears to be wearing headgear.  A group of two figures and a group of three figures are each joined at the arms.  Several other carvings appear in this panel, mostly circles or lines or circles and lines in various combinations.  A long groove underlines the panel of figures.  This panel is the first thing visible to anyone approaching the cave.  One suggested interpretation is that they may represent a mythical, ancestral or corporal social group who would be recognizable to anyone approaching the cave.

Archaeologist in Larson Cave

Archaeologist in Larson Cave

Petroglyph panel at the entrance to Larson Cave

Petroglyph panel at the entrance to Larson Cave

Petroglyph panel at the entrance to Larson Cave line drawing

Petroglyph panel at the entrance to Larson Cave line drawing

 

Running Deer

The Running Deer petroglyphs are located in the same area as the Twin Bluffs petroglyphs.  Since no cultural materials have been found at the site, an age for the creation of the petroglyphs cannot be determined.  The petroglyphs become faint as they are exposed to the weather and are slowly eroded away.

Recording Running Deer petroglyphs

Recording Running Deer petroglyphs

View from Running Deer petroglyphs

View from Running Deer petroglyphs

 

 

 

Petroglyphs of a mammal figure

Petroglyphs of a mammal figure

Petroglyph of a mammal figure line drawing

Petroglyph of a mammal figure line drawing

 

 

Petroglyph of two human figures

Petroglyph of two human figures

Petroglyph of two human figures line drawing

Petroglyph of two human figures line drawing

 

 

 

Samuel

Samuel’s Cave is a naturally-formed rockshelter containing prehistoric petroglyphs and pictographs that probably date to the Oneota occupation of the La Crosse area, (ca. 1300 to 1600 A.D.).  The rockshelter was discovered in 1878 by a boy, Frank Samuels, while trapping raccoons.  It had been sealed for at least 150 years by landslides of soil and rock coming down from the cliffs above.  At the time of discovery, the carvings and drawings on the walls of the rockshelter were reported to be in good to excellent condition.  Weather damage and vandalism over the past 110 years have obliterated many but not all of the prehistoric figures.  In prehistoric times, the rockshelter was probably used as a winter camp, and/or a special activity area.

Entrance to Samuel's Cave

Entrance to Samuel’s Cave

Entrance to Samuel's Cave

Entrance to Samuel’s Cave

 

Looking out of Samuel's Cave

Looking out of Samuel’s Cave

Inside Samuel's Cave

Inside Samuel’s Cave

 

Petroglyph of a human figure wearing headgear

Petroglyph of a human figure wearing headgear

Line drawing of petroglyph of a human figure wearing headgear

Line drawing of petroglyph of a human figure wearing headgear

 

 

Pictographic panel

Pictographic panel

Pictographic panel line drawing

Pictographic panel (line drawing) which possibly portrays in abstract form, a variety of animal forms

Pictographic panel

Pictographic panel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tainter

This ancient deep cave site is filled with the most comprehensive set of prehistoric paintings in the Upper Midwest.  More than one hundred paintings and carvings are located in the cave, all magnificently preserved.  The art includes birds, deer, humans, and abstract designs.  This is a site of national and perhaps international importance.

Sky and earth scene

Sky and earth scene

Sky scene

Sky scene

 

 

 

Birdman

Birdman

Bird

Bird

 

Headless human

Headless human

Bow hunter

Bow hunter

Deer hunters

Deer hunters

 

 

Deer one

Deer one

Deer two

Deer two

Pregnant deer

Pregnant deer

 

Running deer

Running deer

Long horned bison

Long horned bison

Abstract

 

Twin Bluff

The Twin Bluffs petroglyphs occur on a small, flat, vertical rock face with a small rock ledge at the base.  Regional comparisons suggest that prehistoric activity in the shelter probably dates to the late prehistoric period, ca. 250 B.C. to 1500 A.D., although no diagnostic artifacts have been recovered from the vicinity of the site.  Petroglyphs at the Twin Bluffs site include: five complete thunderbird figures, two partial thunderbird figures, one bird in profile, one mammal, and one mushroom-like figure.

Plaster waste visible around the thunderbird figure (lower right image) is left over from early attempts at recording the petroglyphs by making plaster casts.  Removal of the waste material is not possible without damaging the original petroglyphs.  This is an example of how even well intentioned efforts to save the petroglyphs can inadvertently cause damage.

Looking up at Twin Bluffs

Looking up at Twin Bluffs

Thunderbird figures line drawing

Thunderbird figures line drawing

 

 

 

Thunderbird figures

Thunderbird figures

Thunderbird figure

Thunderbird figure

 

Viola

The Viola Rockshelter is situated part way up a small ravine in the bluffs that form the deeply cut Kickapoo River Valley.  In 1986 salvage excavations were undertaken and four periods of occupation were found ranging from ca. 1500 B.C. to 1000 A.D.  It is undetermined which if any occupation created the petroglyphs.  Three groups of figures compose the petroglyph panel.

Outside Viola Rockshelter

Outside Viola Rockshelter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible boat on water with a human figure inside

Possible boat on water with a human figure inside

Possible boat on water with a human figure inside line drawing

Possible boat on water with a human figure inside line drawing

 

Possible dwelling or tepee with a human figure alongside

Possible dwelling or tepee with a human figure alongside

Possible dwelling or tepee with a human figure alongside line drawing

Possible dwelling or tepee with a human figure alongside line drawing

 

 

The Rock Art web site was paid for by a grant from the University of Wisconsin – La Crosse Foundation